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   PNB-1 service manual
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Powerful binocular PNB-1



1. Introduction
2. Purpose
3. Technical data
4. Composition of device
5. Design and operation of device
   5.1. Basic Optical Train
   5.2. Design of Device
6. Tools and accessories
7. Marking and sealing
8. Containers and packing

1. Introduction

The present technical description and service manual are intended for studying article PNB-1 and rules of its service.

The document contains technical data, information on the design and principle of the article operation as well as the basic rules required for ensuring its correct service and complete use of its technical potentialities, for carrying out repair with the use of the single and group STA kits.

2. Purpose

The binocular observation device, conventional name-article PNB-1, (hereinafter in the text referred to as "a device") is intended for detection, target designation and observation of ground and aerial objects, designation and determination of angular coordinates of objects, observed from the stationary and temporary observation posts by day, in twilight and at night with the use of standard illuminating devices.

The device can operate in the open air at a temperature from minus 50C to 50C and relative humidity up to 100% at a temperature of 25C.

3. Technical data

The basic parameters and dimensions of the device are denoted in table 1.

Table 1

Name of characteristic




Field of view in the space of objects


Diameter of the pupils


   of the entrance one

110 mm

   of the exit one Eye relief

7.33 mm

Eye relief

15 mm

Resolution of each monocular in center of field of view


Parallax between the image of the infinitely distant object and the reticle


Light transmission


Distance between the centers of the exit pupils of the right and left tubes

59-72 mm

Convergence of the light beams behind the eyepieces

from minus 3 to 12 D

Range of measuring the angles of elevation

from minus 35 to 60

Range of measuring the traversing angles


Reading accuracy in measuring the angles


Division value of the limbs


Overall dimensions


   of the device: length (without blind), width, height (without a tripod)

400x580x402 mm

   of the case: lenght, width, height


Weight maximum


   of the device
30 kg

   of the device packed

48 kg


4. Composition of device

The composition of the device is denoted in table 2.





AL3. 803.101

Article PNB-1










Round level


















Mounted on the device









AA8.890.001 01





Light filter




Light filter




Light filter




Pipe connection












Delivered at special request













AA3.803.101 TO

Technical description and service manual

1 copy



5. Design and operation of device

5.1 Basic Optical Train

The optical train of the device is a telescopic system which consists of two branches. Each branch has an objective composed of lenses 1, 2 (Fig. 1) and prism 3, 4, 14, an eyepiece composed of lenses 5, 6 and cemeted lenses 7, 8, 9, changeable light filters 10, 11,12.

Fig.1. Basic optical train

Fig.1. Basic optical train
1, 2, 5, 9 - lenses; 3, 4, 14 - prisms; 10 - neutral density filter;
11 - light orange color filter; 12 - blue-green color filter; 13 - reticle.

Fig. 3. Eyepieces

Fig. 3. Eyepieces
1 - scale; 2 - casing; 3 - diaphragm; 4 - reticle; 5 - mount; 6 - casing; 7 - ring

The light beams which come from the object to be viewed pass through the objective, and after collecting in its focal plane from an inverted image of the object.

There is a prismatic inversion system composed of prisms 3, 4, 14 in the focal plane of the eyepiece for obtaining an erect image. The prisms serve also for deviation of the sighting line by 30 upwards and for changing the distance between the exit pupils and between the entrance pupils.

Reticle 13 which is a plane - parallel plate is positioned in the focal plane of the right objective. The plate is engraved with three scales: vertical, horizontal and scale 1.7.The field of view is shown in Fig. 7.

Fig.7. Fild of view
Fig.7. Fild of view

The vertical and horizontal scale are intended for measuring the angular dimensions of the objects. The division value is 0-05. The total range of the vertical scale is 0-30, that of the horizontal one is + 0-30. The central sign (cross-hairs) indicates a centre of the field of view.

The scale 1.7 serves for measuring the distance to the object of 1.7 m high. It is made in the form of two lines: the lower line is horizontal and the upper line is a curve. The lines which a division value of 2 hectometres and numbering of each 2nd line are marked above the curve. The range of the scale is from 4 to 30 hectometres.

Light filters 9, 10 (Fig-8) facilitate the condition of observation.

5.2 Design of Device

The device consists of two telescopes, casings 2 and 4 (fig. 2) which are connected below by means of a mechanism of the eye distance with handwheel 5 (Fig.5). The casings arc connected from above by means of bushing 1, shaft 2 and fork 4.

Each telescope consists of a casing, objective 3 (Fig. 4), unit 9 of prisms and an eyepiece, desiccator 10, nipple 12 and blind.

Fig. 4. Binoculars

Fig. 4. Binoculars
1 - screw; 2 - ring; 3 - objective; 4,5 - ring; 6 - headrest bracket;
7 - handle; 8 - headrest; 9 - unit of prisms; 10 - desiccator;
11 - cover; 12 - nipple; 13 - screw

Objective 3 is mounted in the front section of the casing, fixed with ring 2 and serves for obtaining a real image of the object.

Unit 9 of prisms is mounted in the middle section of the casing and plays the part of the inversion system.

The eyepiece composed of lenses 5 (Fig. 1), 6, 7, 8 and 9 fixed in mount 5 (Fig. 3) and pressed with ring 7 serves for viewing the image formed by the objective. The eyepieces are fastened on the rear wall of casings 2, 4 (Fig. 2). Reticle 4 (Fig. 3) is mounted in the right eyepiece, diaphragm 3 is mounted in the left eyepieces. The eyepieces are set for the image sharpness of the target by an observer's eye by rotation of scales 1. The value of the diopter setting of the eyepieces (in the range from minus 3 to 5 diopters) is determined by scales 1 and indices on casings 2 and 6. In operation with the device if necessary, changeable light filters 9 (Fig.8) 10, 11 of a required color from the single STA kit are put on. After operation caps 4 and 5 from the single STA kit are put on the objectives and eyepieces.

Headrest 8 (Fig. 4) is inserted in bracket 6 fastened on casing 2 (Fig. 2). The headrest serves as a support for the head and ensures a convenient operation. It can be moved and to be fixed with the use of handle 7 (Fig.4).

Desiccators 10 (Fig.4) filled with silica gel are fastened on casings 2 and 4 (Fig. 2) and serve for constant desiccation of the device inner cavity.

The silica gel condition is controlled through a protective glass: dry silica gel is blue, silica gel saturated with moisture is white-pink. The caps of desiccators 10 (Fig. 4) are provided with slots for wrench 6 (Fig. 8) from the single STA kit for unscrewing the desiccator in case of its replacement.

Nipple 12 (Fig, 4) screwed in the casing serves for desiccation of the device if necessary. To perform this one undoes cap 11 (Fig. 4) with the use of wrench 6 (Fig. 8), screws pipe connection 12 (Fig. 8) from the single STA kit on the nipple and connects the machine of desiccation of the device with dry ail to the pipe connection. In doing so one of the screws fixing tlie eyepiece must be screwed out.

Blinds 3 (Fig. 2) and 5 are put on casings 2 and 4 on the side of tlie objectives, protect them against lighting by the sunrays and serve for decreasing detrimental (diffused) light which penetrates in the device.

Fig.6. Tripod for mounting the PNB-1 binocularThe tripod (Fig. 6) is designed for mounting the device on the ground or any immovable base.

The tripod consists of head 3, pin 1 0 and three adjustable legs 5. Leg 7 located in leg 5 can move along leg 5. Leg 7 is fixed in position relative to leg 5 by means of nut 9. Stop 6 required for mounting the tripod with the device on the ground is fastened at the end of leg 7.

Stops 6 pressed into the ground adjust a round level of the limb. Cap 4 is put on the tripod pin to protect it against damage in transportation. The tripod is carried with the help of shoulder belt I with a buckle.

The stand is used as a support for the device in operation in a stationary post. The main part of the stand is bed 7 (Fig. 19) inside which rack 2 is positioned together with pin 1 which is a seat for the device. The lack is moved by rotation of handwheel 4 by using handle 6 through reduction gear 3. Button 5 fixes handle 6 in the extreme positions. Key 11 ensures translation of rack 2.

The mechanism of the vertical laying consists of outer bracket 1 (Fig. 10), its box embodies gearing train 15, gears 19, 27 and limb 10 with the scale of angles of elevation.

Gearing train 15 is fit on axle 18 screwed in bushing 16 and secured with nut 17. Bushing 16 is screwed to the toracket casing by means of three screws and locked with dowels. Gear 16 is locked on the axle with dowels, and gear 27 is put on the axle freely. Limb 10 with the scale of the angles of elevation is fixed to gear 27 by means of three countersunk screws 26 through bar 3. Gear 27 is protected against axial movement by means of nut 4. Bushing 30 is pressed and locked with dowels in the light eye of bracket 1. There are holes in the bracket and bushing, grease is delivered to axle 28 in operation with the device through these holes. There is a groove on the axle for lubrication. The lubricating hole is closed with screw 29.

Bracket 25 is put on the ends of the left axle 24 and right axle 28 and locked with dowels, the axles are directed inside the device, the bracket carries the binoculars. There are washers 22 between brackets I and 25 on the axles. Handles 6 fastened with screws 31 are fit on the ends of the axles. An observer holds to handles 6 and tilts the device at an angle of position. The axles of the handles rotate freely in bushings 20 and 30 pressed in bracket 1.

In rotation of the handles bracket 25 rotates together with the binoculars. The rotation at the axle is transmitted to gear 27 connected to scale 10 of angles of elevation through gear 19 and gearing train 15.

The binoculars are locked at an angle of position will the help of brake handwheel 5.

On screwing the brake handwheel its branch pipe presses collet bushing 8 and in doing so the axle is locked as well as the binoculars.

For making a box of outer bracket 1 air-tight one mounts glands 9 and 23 at both ends of axle 24. Gland 9 is pressed with nut 7 and gland 23 is pressed with washer 22. The rotation of the device through the angle of position is limited by two stops with lubber shock-absorbers 21, bracket 25 rests against the shock-absorber. For precise setting of the sighting limits the shock-absorbers have eccentricity. The stops are fixed on the wall of outer bracket 2 (Fig. 11) with screws 4 and nuts 1. Screw 3 protects the shock-absorber against disturbance relative to screw 4.

The binoculars can rotate in the vertical plane in the range from minus 35 to 60. The angles of sight are read from scale 10 (Fig. 10) and by nonius 14 fixed rigidly on bracket 1.

Fig.10. Mechanism of vertical aiming of PNB-1 binocular

Fig.10. Mechanism of vertical aiming of device

The readings are taken through a port closed with transparent protective plate 12 inserted in bracket 1 and pressed with frame 11. The scale is divided into one hundred sixty divisions, in this case sixty divisions which designate negative angles of position (below the horizon) are red and one hundred divisions which designate positive angles are black. The division value is equal to ten small divisions of the deflection.

Each one hundred small divisions of the deflection (1-00) are marked with figures 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3 ...10. The nonius allows of leading angles with accuracy up to two divisions of the deflection. The box of the limb of the angles of elevation is closed with cover 13 screwed to the bracket by means of screws 2.

The mechanism of horizontal laying performs horizontal laying of the device with the help of handles 6 which are also used for vertical laying. The binoculars together with bracket 1 fixed rigidly on bushing 8 (Fig. 12) of the horizontal limb rotates about the vertical axis of immovable base 14 of the limb. The base 14 of the limb is connected -with bushing 8 by means of screw 6 locked with screw 7. Limb 16 lies on base 14 and is protected from axial displacement with the help of sectors 15 screwed to base 14 with screws. The scale of traversing angles is marked on the lateral surface of limb 16 and has 600 divisions. The division value is equal to ten small divisions of the deflection. Each large division of the deflection (at each 100th small divisions) is figured. Nonius 3 of the scale is fastened on bracket 4 which is screwed to guide bushing 8 and can rotate together -with it and hood 9 relative to the limb about the vertical axis. The nonius allows of taking readings of the limb with accuracy of two small divisions of the deflection. The scale readings are taken through a port in the hood. The port is closed with protective plate 3 which lies on frame 2 welded to hood 9 which protects the limb against damage and contamination .

The protective plate is pressed by means of frame 17 from above, the frame is screwed to the hood with four screws.

In operation with the device the limb is immovable. The limb can rotate relative to the binoculars in orientation with the help of an arrester. It consists of bushing 10 fastened on the limb base by means of clamping screw 12. The screw head enters a slot around the limb and in rotation slides freely there. Handwheel 11 is fastened at the lower end of the clamping screw. In rotation the handwheel is screwed on the screw, in doing so the bead of the screw head is snug against the bottom of the slot of limb 16 and locks it. Under the limb where handwheel 11 of the lock is placed three dogs 17 are located, with the use of these dogs the limb can be rotated through any angle when the handwheel is released.

The binoculars can be locked by azimuth with the use of the arrester located in the lug of guide bushing 8.

The arrester consists of handwheel 8 (Fig. 13) rigidly connected with screw 4. In rotation of the handwheel the screw is screwed in sliding block 3 pulling it to the immovable pin of base 1 of the limb. In doing so the whole upper section of the device and the limb hood are locked. Screw 7 and stud 6 limit the number of rotations of handwheel 8.

The round spherical level serves for levelling the device. It consists of vial 2 (Fig. 14) and casing 1. The vial is filled with ethyl alcohol. Three concentric circumferences are marked on its outer surface; they are used for determination of the device levelling accuracy. The level division value is 0-02.

Fig.12. Mechanism of horizontal aiming of PNB-1
Fig.13. Arrester
Fig.12. Mechanism of horizontal
aiming of device
Fig.13. Arrester
Fig.14. Level
Fig.14. Level

The vial is located in the casing and potted with gypsum.

6. Tools and accessories

The following tools and accessories are intended: wrench 6 (Fig. 8) - for replacement of desiccators in the device; screwdriver 7 - for replacement of the round level; containers 2 - for sealing desiccators I available in the single STA kit. It is forbidden to store the desiccators without the containers as silicagel is quickly saturated with moisture. The joint of the container with the desiccator is sealed with a rubber gasket; caps 4, 5 - for protection of the objectives and eyepieces of the device in transportation and storage; blush 8 - for removal of dust from the outer surfaces of the optical pieces; napkins 13 - for cleaning the outer surfaces of the optical pieces; light filters 9 of a light - orange color- for mounting in the device in observation where there is a fog, low illumination intensity of the terrain and low contrast of the objects; light filters 10 (neutral) - for mounting in the device at bright dazzling light; light filters 11 of a blue-green color for mounting in the device for protection against radiation of the laser; pipe connection 12 - for connection of a machine for desiccation of the inner cavities of the device with dry air; cover 14 - for protection of the device against the influence of the surroundings (rain, snow, dust) in intervals of operation.

7. Marking and sealing

There are the following inscriptions on designation strip 1 (Fig. 2) of the device;

a trade - mark of the manufacturing plant, symbol PNB-1 and the device number.

The front side of the housing is engraved with symbol. PNB-1 and the device number.

The housing of the device complete set is sealed.

8. Containers and packing

Packing-case 1 (Fig. 9) is designed for carrying and transportation of the device and single STA kit.

Prior to packing the device one obtains the minimal interpapillary distance between the eyepieces by using handwheel 5 (Fig. 5).

Fig.5. Casing of the PNB-1 binocular
Fig.5. Casing. 1 - bushing; 2 - shaft; 3 - screw;
4 - plug; 5 - handwheel; 6 - bushing; 7 - screw; 8 - pin.

Remove the device from the tripod or stand depending on the kind of mounting. Lubricate hole 'a' (Fig. 12) with grease GOI-54p. Put the device in the packing-case on the blocks and press it with a cleat.

The parts of the single STA kit are put at the places in compliance with list 2 of enclosure (Fig, 9) available on the inner side of the packing-case cover.

Cover the eyepieces and objectives of the device with some cotton wool and then put on the caps.

Prior to packing wrap light filters 9, 10, 11 (Fig. 8) and round level 3 in some cotton wool and two layers of cigarette paper.

Desiccators 1 in container 2, pipe connections 12, screwdriver 7, brush 8, napkins 13, and the log book are packed wrapped in some vegetable parchment.

Cover 14 is located at the bottom of the packing case.

Before packing wrench 6 is lubricated with grease GOI-54p and wrapped in capacitor paper KOH-1.

Sliding legs 7 of the tripod (Fig. 6) are pushed in and fixed with nut 9, legs 5 are lightened and fixed with belt 8.

The tripod wrapped in vegetable parchment is packed in a wooden packing case together with the packing-case which contains the device complete set.

The stand with pin 1 (Fig. 19) lubricated with grease GOI-54p and wrapped in capacitor paper KOH-1 is packed in the packing case after screwing it in to obtain its minimal dimension. When the tripod and the stand are delivered together the tripod is packed in the packing case of the stand.

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